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The Landlord & Tenant Act 1954 – what every practice in a leasehold surgery needs to know

If you lease your surgery premises then the Landlord & Tenant Act 1954 (“L&TA”) is something that could affect you.

The act covers the rights and obligations of both a landlord and tenant in relation to commercial premises, and whatever your situation – whether your GP practice has a documented lease in place, or you’re occupying a surgery under an ‘implied’ tenancy – it is important you understand what the L&TA is and may mean for your practice.
To help you, here we take a closer look at the act and some of the key benefits that having a lease covered by the L&TA can bring, along with the risks and challenges you may face if it is excluded.

What is the L&TA?

The Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 is an important piece of legislation that governs the relationship between landlords and tenants of commercial premises. It was introduced to offer greater protection for tenants.
The rights and obligations covered by the act will be in addition to any terms and conditions set out in your lease.

Understanding your current lease

Unless your lease includes a specific clause contracting you out of the L&TA, then you are likely to be protected by the provisions it sets out. This will also generally be the case even if you do not have a formal documented lease in place but have been in occupation and paying rent for a number of years.

Inclusion of the L&TA – Benefits to GPs

If your tenancy is covered by the act then you will benefit in a number of ways:

  1. You will have an automatic right of renewal. That means that even when the fixed term of your lease has ended, you will have the right to remain in occupation and to apply to the court for the grant of a new lease.
  2. If you and your landlord fail to agree on the terms of a new lease then the court can make key decisions, such as the length of time it will run and the rent payable.
  3. When it comes to the length of the new lease, the court is much more likely to agree to a time period requested by a tenant, than by a landlord. A key benefit of having a shorter term lease inside the L&TA is that it reduces the risk of having to pay rent long after you have left the practice and after the building is no longer used for Primary Care.
  4. If your lease payments are linked to the rent reimbursement (as most GP surgery rents are), a court is unlikely to permit a new rent which permits a landlord to break this link, or indeed to permit the introduction of new or significantly varied service charges.

Exclusion of the L&TA – Potential problems for GP practices

If your lease does exclude the conditions of the L&TA, then there are some key issues you may face: 

  1. When your lease comes to an end on the specified termination date, you will have to vacate the surgery regardless of the impact on patients.
  2. It will be entirely up to your landlord whether or not they decide to offer you a new lease and if they do, then it could be on very different terms to your previous one. This means that any draft lease proposed may not be approved by NHSE and that your rent reimbursement could be prejudiced, and/or that you could find yourself liable for rent even after you have left the practice.

Negotiating the best lease for your practice

While you may be keen for your lease to be protected by the L&TA, your landlord may prefer it is excluded. This means it could become an important part of your negotiations. The arguments for and against excluding it will depend on many factors, including the buoyancy of the current rental market, and your future plans and those of your landlord.

The L&TA is a particularly complex area of law, with strict procedures that have to be followed to the letter, or you risk losing your protected rights.  Unfortunately even a seemingly trivial technical error in the processing of notices given in accordance with the L&TA can cause them to be invalid, resulting in some serious and potentially very costly problems for the practice. 

We recommend you always seek assistance from a legal professional at least a year before your lease is due to expire (whether or not you wish to renew the lease or bring it to an end) and in the event that you receive any notice from your landlord seeking to terminate or change the terms of your occupation (such as a section 25 notice).

Protecting your practice

As with any contract or lease negotiations, it is always advisable to seek the advice of an experienced legal team, who can advise you on your specific case and personal circumstances.

For more info about this, or any other legal issue relating to your practice, please contact Daphne Robertson on 01483 511555 or d.robertson@drsolicitors.com

Our Team


GP surgery lease – managing your repair and reinstatement obligations

When you’re negotiating a lease for your GP practice it is important to ensure that you are aware of all the potential costs you may incur throughout your tenure – especially when you could be faced with bills running into many thousands of pounds.

One key area where costs can quickly mount up, and where disputes between tenants and landlords are common, is repairs, maintenance and reinstatement of the premises. This is particularly true if you are signing a full repairing and insuring lease (FRI), which places full responsibility for all such costs on your shoulders, as tenant.

Here we take a closer look at how you can best manage your obligations and minimise any potential for dispute.

  • What is a Full Repairing and Insuring lease?

As the name suggests, under this type of lease the full cost of all repairs and insurance will be borne by you as tenant. This is true whatever the repairs may be, whether external, internal or structural. It is also established law that as part of your FRI obligations you must repair the property even if it is in a poor condition at the start of the lease.

If you are the sole occupant of a building on an FRI lease (a ‘lease of whole’), you will normally have full responsibility for the maintenance of the whole property. If you occupy a surgery which forms part of a larger property (a ‘lease of part’) you will be responsible for repairing the interior of the surgery, and will share with the other occupants the cost of repairs to the structure, exterior and common parts of the property through a service charge.

In addition to keeping the property in ‘good repair’ throughout the term, you may have to return the interior and/or the exterior of the building to their original state at the end of the term.
If you are in breach of any of your obligations during the lease, then your landlord may be able to claim damages, including the costs of repairs, loss of rent and any other damages. At worst, your landlord may seek to terminate the lease.

What are repair and reinstatement obligations?

Your responsibilities should be clearly set out in your lease. Typically, they will include:

  • A responsibility to keep the premises in good condition throughout the term of the lease, not just at the end of the term (such as maintaining the roof, the heating system, the windows and doors etc)
  • An obligation to clean and redecorate at regular intervals through the term and/or at the end of the term
  • An obligation to remove and reinstate any alterations you have made

What do you need to be aware of?

The main problem you face with an FRI lease is that irrespective of the cause of the damage, as tenant you will be responsible for funding any repairs to the property – even if the damage was due to negligence on the part of the landlord. One rare exception may be if the landlord has already insured against a certain risk, details of which you should be able to find in the buildings insurance documentation.

A common cause of dispute is interpreting the extent of this repairing obligation. Leases can use phrases such as ‘the Tenant shall keep the Property in good repair and condition’, or ‘in a tenantable condition’. Even the word ‘repair’ can mean different things. This type of terminology is subject to endless legal wrangles between landlords and tenants.

Some lease agreements even include an obligation to rebuild. This carries a far greater potential risk to you as tenant, so is something to avoid, especially when signing a relatively short term lease.

Taking steps to protect yourself

If you are going to enter into an FRI lease then there are steps you can take to better protect yourself:

  • Prepare a Schedule of Condition

Enlist the services of a specialist surveyor, who can examine and record the present state of the surgery. Your legal team should be able to help point you in the right direction with an introduction.

The surveyor will put together a ‘Schedule of Condition’ (SoC) for you, which may be written or even better, photographic. This will give you a detailed record of the state of the premises at the beginning of the contract. It may also highlight any important structural concerns or existing damage to the property that you may need to repair. You should then seek to limit the lease obligation to maintaining and reinstating the building to the same state and condition that it is in when you move in.

The SoC should be attached to and form part of the lease before it is entered into. If your landlord doesn’t want to agree to one at first, then persevere, as they will usually accept one eventually. But even if your landlord won’t agree, you should arrange to have one drawn up for your own records, as it could still be a useful piece of evidence when negotiating ‘dilapidations’ at the end of the lease.

  • Ensure you understand the extent of the obligations in the lease

The extent of your obligations can turn on a single word or phrase in the lease. Since this is such a controversial (and expensive) area, the meaning of these terms has been clarified over the years through case law. The ‘real’ meaning is often not obvious to laypersons, so you would be well advised to have them explained by a specialist solicitor.

  • Understand and negotiate the Service Charges

Ensure you understand what you will be paying for through the Service Charges, and negotiate accordingly. For example, why should you contribute to maintaining the lifts if you are only using rooms on the ground floor?

  • Consider holding a sinking fund

As partners approach retirement, they have an incentive to leave the repairing and maintaining obligations for later generations to pay. This can cause some very nasty surprises for incoming partners. Best practice is to allocate an appropriate share of the rent reimbursement to a repairs and maintenance sinking fund.
Also, bear in mind that the less you spend on maintenance and service charges during the course of a lease, the more you may end up paying to reinstate at the end of the lease. This can create problems, especially for joining and retiring partners who will want to understand what the obligations are likely to be – particularly if there aren’t many years left to run.


Due to the huge responsibility and cost that an FRI lease places on tenants, it should always be entered into with caution and only after taking legal advice. Remember that a tenant has obligations for the full term of the lease and not simply whilst a partner in their practice.

And one final word of advice: no matter how good a relationship you may feel you have with your landlord, never rely on good faith or memory. Landlords move on and the landlord in situ when your lease eventually comes to an end may well view things differently to your current landlord.

For more advice on lease negotiation, please contact Daphne Robertson at DR Solicitors:

Tel: 01483 511555,

E-mail: d.robertson@drsolicitors.com

You may like to download our free eBook ‘Top ten tips when agreeing a surgery lease‘.

Our Team


The Benefits of a Social Enterprise versus Profit making Company

In our recent blog, Where will future practice income come from?, we explained how additional income is unlikely to come from your core GMS/PMS contract. As a result, many GPs are looking to supplement their income from other sources; from their CCG, from the local authority or in other ways.

It looks like the majority of new public money available to primary care will be funnelled through practices working together; the NHS Five Year Forward View, Vanguard monies and the much promised – but yet to be delivered – ‘premises’ money are all strongly suggestive of this. This is one trend in healthcare which seems likely to continue.

If you’re looking at working together with other practices, the chances are that you are either already a member of, or are considering setting up, a GP federation or a GP Network. In this first article in a series of articles linked to GP practice income, we will be looking at the benefits of running this as a social enterprise versus a profit-making company.

Introduction to social enterprise

Most GPs will be familiar with the traditional, profit-making enterprise, where the shareholders each receive a share of the net profits to spend as they wish. In contrast, many GPs know relatively little about social enterprises and their benefits, although they may be under some common misconceptions.

Working for a social enterprise does not, as is sometimes assumed, mean working for free. Everyone working in the business will be paid the going rate for providing their services, and suppliers all get paid in the normal way. Consequently, for most people, there is no practical difference between working for a social enterprise and for a profit making business.

The key is that any ‘surplus profit’ once all the costs of the business have been settled must be invested into the ‘social purpose’ as defined in the objectives of the company. Furthermore, if the business is wound up, any remaining assets would also need to be re-invested back into the social purpose. The precise definition of ‘surplus profit’ and how it can be spent is determined by the type of social enterprise. We will be looking at these different types in another blog post.

While the terms ‘non-profit making’ and ‘social enterprise’ are used interchangeably, it is important to note that a social enterprise can make a profit, and indeed it can be possible for some of this profit to be returned to investors in the business. It’s just that ‘surplus profit’ must go towards supporting the social purpose.

The practical implications and benefits of social enterprises

There are a number of potential advantages to running a healthcare practice as a social enterprise:

  • Social engagement is much easier

    Community support for social enterprises can be stronger as the business is seen to be working for a good cause, rather than for the investors. Local people may be more willing to contribute their time by volunteering or fundraising; the general feeling of goodwill may attract more patients through the door; there may be fewer complaints as people feel a degree of ownership, and; employees may show more commitment.

  • Access to alternative sources of finance

    Healthcare practices are traditionally financed through a combination of NHS funding and bank loans. Social enterprises may be able to supplement these with other sources of funding from ethically minded individuals or organisations who are happy to provide capital as a gift or at below market rates since they know that the ‘saving’ will be locked into providing the social purpose rather than extracted as additional profit by the business owners. Examples include community fundraising, crowdsourcing, bequests and legacies, and trust fund grants.

  • More opportunities for joint working

    It is widely understood that the future of healthcare must lie in better integrating primary care with secondary and social care and that GPs are key to coordinating a patient’s ‘healthcare journey’. The challenge is how to get such a disparate variety of participants to successfully work together. Trust is at the core of any working relationship, and some, if not most, of the necessary healthcare professionals may feel more committed to joint working for a social enterprise where ‘going the extra mile’ has a more direct impact on the community.

  • Reduced risk of disputes between business owners

    Social enterprises can be ‘owned’ in a variety of ways. Common methods include limited company shares and membership subscriptions. The most appropriate method depends partly on how widely you wish to spread ownership (e.g. a small group of GPs, all local health workers, or all patients?) Since social enterprises have minimal to no value to the owners, there is no goodwill to be valued and none of the resulting arguments between shareholders over the value of their investment on leaving the company. If someone wants to leave they are more likely to simply leave and take their services elsewhere.

  • Preferential treatment?

    Although CCGs and other public bodies are not currently allowed to prefer social enterprises in       procurement, they are able to set selection criteria such as ‘demonstrating community involvement’ which social enterprises may find easier to meet.

In conclusion

Social enterprises hold many apparent advantages in the primary care sector. Since most costs are simply salary costs, healthcare is anyway not normally a sector which generates large ‘surplus profits’. For this reason, the ‘benefits’ of social enterprise can be accrued without the ‘cost’ of losing access to the (non-existent) surplus profit. These benefits include inviting trust from the local community which should hopefully result in better health outcomes.

If a GP federation or Network is set up as a social enterprise, the owning GP practices can remain as profit making partnerships and still be paid by the federation/network for the work they do in the normal way. The GP federation/network will then engage with the local community and with other health and social care providers to become a true ‘multi-speciality community provider’ as envisaged by Simon Stevens in the Five Year Forward View. 

The bottom line is that social enterprises remain a little misunderstood. If you’re considering setting up or becoming a social enterprise, it is important to seek appropriate advice on the implications and on the legal entity.

DR Solicitors has already helped numerous GPs establish an operating vehicle for their joint working (GP federations and Network Companies), some of which have been established as Social Enterprises. Please contact Daphne Robertson or Nils Christiansen if you would like to discuss your joint working plans. We would be delighted to hear from you.

For more information about GP networks and federations and any other related issues, please contact Daphne Robertson on 01483 511555 or email d.robertson@drsolicitors.com